1910 - 1919
I. 18th February 1910 – Christiana (NOR)
22 delegates from 10 countries
When the Norwegian Ski Association was being set up in 1908, the possibility of founding an International Federation was raised. The following year, on 2nd February 1909, during international skiing competitions at Morez (FRA), the trainer for the Norwegian skiers, Durban Hansen, spoke up during the distribution of prizes and issued an invitation on behalf of his National Association to those present to attend a Ski Congress at Christiania with the aim of setting up this International Federation. Officials and competitors from France, Italy and Switzerland enthusiastically applauded this invitation. Two months later a written confirmation was sent to the responsible authorities in eleven countries where the sport of skiing was practised. This text stipulated:
“Over the last ten years, we have noted a keen interest in developing the sport of skiing in many countries. We therefore believe that the time has come to found an International Ski Federation with a view to establishing approved rules for Jumping and to find the best way to resolve the problems of the amateur. We are convinced that the delegates from the different countries would like to see the competitions at Holmenkollen. Thus we propose to organise the Ski Congress within the context of the competitions. . .”
Delegates from ten nations agreed to attend. On 18th February 1910, Karl Roll, President of the Norwegian Ski Association, welcomed them at Christiania, and then chaired the debates. The discussions ended with the setting up of an International Ski Commission (CIS). A major task was entrusted to this Commission – the establishment and application of a set of rules for each type of ski competition. Karl Roll, declined the offer to be the first Chairman of the Commission, for private reasons.
Amongst the delegates was future IOC President, J. Sigfrid Edström.
II. 20th to 21st March 1911 – Stockholm (SWE)
15 delegates from 9 countries
Before the end of 1910, the rules had already been established: a second Congress had to be convened. It took place under the chairmanship of J. Sigfrid Edström. The Congress Members polished and adopted the first international rules for skiing competitions.
III. 24th to 25th January 1912 – Munich (GER)
14 delegates from 8 countries
In the rules governing amateur status, it is clearly laid down that any skier who receives money for his participation or compensation in kind must not be considered as an amateur.
IV. 20th to 21st March 1913 – Berne/Interlaken (SUI)
14 delegates from 8 countries
- Enlargement of the International Skiing Commission to seven members: two Norwegians, two Swedes, a Swiss, a German and an Austrian.
- The adoption of new rules.
V. 27th to 28th February 1914 – Christiania (NOR)
17 delegates from 10 countries
- Hassa Horn (NOR) becomes President of the CIS.
- The German delegate suggests for the first time that skiing be included on the Olympic programme. Carl Hellberg (SWE) opposes this plan, which had already been envisaged and rejected by the authorities in his country.
Thus the question is put back to the next Congress planned for 1915 at Salzburg (AUT). However, war leads to its cancellation.
1920 – 1929
VI. 10th February 1922 – Stockholm (SWE)
20 delegates from 6 countries
The countries of Central Europe are unable to attend following a rail strike in Germany. No decision is taken in regard to the introduction of skiing on the Olympic programme as the IOC is not yet ready to give full recognition to skiing competitions which the Games’ organisers could however plan for, without awarding Olympic medals.
In his “Olympic Memoirs,” Pierre de Coubertin recalls the difficult creation of the Winter Games, when speaking of the IOC Congress of 1921.
“The Scandinavians did not want them at any price,” he writes “But,” he adds, in twenty-five years, winter sports had not only developed in a number of countries but they were so truly amateur, so frank and so pure in their sporting dignity that their complete exclusion from the Olympic programme deprived it of much force and value. On the other hand, how were they to be organised? In addition to the Scandinavian resistance, there was the twofold concern that they could not take place at the same time or in the same place as the Summer Games ….
It was therefore bruited abroad that if France were selected as the host country for the Games of the Vlll. Olympiad, the organisers would have the right to present at Chamonix a week of winter sports to which the IOC would give its patronage but which “would not be part of the Games”. This latter clause had to be annulled later and, confirms Coubertin, “the Winter Games were finally founded in spite of the Scandinavians who ended by abandoning their objection and realising that in view of the roles of Switzerland and Canada in particular they could no longer lay claim to the practical monopoly they had exercised for so long.
Vll. 6th February 1923 – Prague (TCH)
18 delegates from 11 countries
- Presence of American delegates for the first time
- The principle of the foundation of an International Ski Federation is approved; however the final decision is adjourned until the next meeting.
Vlll. 2nd February 1924 – Chamonix (FRA)
36 delegates from 14 countries
This Congress, which established the FIS, took place during an International Winter Sports Week – known in Olympic history as the 1st Winter Games. The CIS gave way to the FIS.
Delegates Josef Rossler-Orovsky (TCH) and Ivar Holmquist (SWE) were firmly in favour of the constitution of a Federation, but Hysing Olsen (NOR) was against it. He was of the opinion that it was enough to maintain the Commission as before. “Norway is opposed to this idea,” he had to add, and these words were recorded. He added however that if all those present were in favour of a federation and if the proposal for the statutes, studied by the International Ski Federation, was adopted in the main, Norway was ready to give way.
Three proposals for the statutes were made: one by the CIS, one by Doctor Pierre Minelle (FRA), and a third, studied shortly before the Congress by the Norwegian and Swedish delegations and in which the main points of the two other proposals appeared. The Congress decided unanimously that the Norwegian and Swedish proposal should constitute the basis of future deliberations. Thus, the International Ski Federation was formed by unanimous decision. Or, to be more precise, the International Commission transformed itself into the International Ski Federation.
According to the first statutes, the Council had to have a President, Vice-President, Secretary General/Treasurer and six members. Finland, Norway and Sweden had to be represented on the Council. In addition, the President and the Secretary General had to be of one of these three nationalities. Following a proposal by Ivar Holmquist, who was elected the first President of the FIS, the official abbreviation “FIS” was chosen and has remained.
During this Congress, it was also decided that the FIS should invite ski racers each year to a large international competition. At the origin of the World Championships, these Championships were called a “rendez-vous” up until 1927, and then from 1929 onwards “the FIS Competitions”.
IX. 3rd to 6th February 1926 – Lahti (FIN)
21 delegates from 12 countries
The question of skiing and the Olympic Games was once again raised at this Congress. The decisions taken were not unanimous, despite the fact that in 1925 the IOC had decided to include winter sports on its Olympic programme. The delegates from Finland and Norway declared that their respective National Federations were not in favour of Olympic skiing competitions. These two countries, together with Sweden, maintained their positions during the vote.
Nonetheless, the “Yes” votes won the day.
X. 14th to 16th February 1928 – St. Moritz (SUI)
38 delegates from 15 countries
Arnold Lunn (GBR) founder of the Slalom, or “artistic” skiing, passing through gates, proposes the introduction of Alpine Skiing to the FIS competitions. The project was assigned to a special Committee with K. von Graffenried (SUI) as Chairman.
The British Ski Year Book of 1928 reports: “Von Graffenried took the floor and remarked that the Swiss had tried out the Slalom at the last Championships, but that they had been very disappointed by the results. Smith-Kielland said that, in most Cross-Country races, there were sections passing through forest and that he was naturally opposed to artificial Slaloms. The British Slalom appeared to be a very artificial race. Toivo Aro then took the floor and raised the fact that his country was flat and that Downhill races could not be organised in Finland.” These three speeches were not exactly encouraging for the proposal. Arnold Lunn then defended his cause and said, amongst other things, “We are not asking that Slalom and Downhill races be included in all international meetings. All that we ask is that Slalom and Downhill races should not be ousted without being put to the test.”
Von Graffenried then proposed to the Committee that it should recommend to the Congress that countries outside the Alps try these races according to the British rules during the year to come. The Congress approved this proposal unanimously.
1930 – 1939
Xl. 24th to 26th February 1930 – Oslo (NOR)
26 delegates from 15 countries
- The birth of Alpine Skiing:
“Karl Dannegger (SUI), opened the debate with a brief resume and explained the new rules for the Slalom and the Downhill. He proposed that the vote be in favour of the British proposal.
Then, N. R. Östgaard said that the Norwegian Ski Association, in agreement with the other Nordic associations (Sweden and Finland) would not, after all, oppose the inclusion of Slalom and Downhill races in the FIS International Regulations. This was a great surprise for all the delegates! What had happened? Well, the three Nordic countries had met on the previous afternoon and had changed their minds. They were now in favour of these ‘new’ races.
Rohmberg (AUT) said that he was happy that the problem had been solved so easily and without dramatic discussions. No other delegate took the floor. Even Arnold Lunn had not spoken throughout the meeting, but he was visibly relieved. The President of the FIS, Ivar Holmquist, then said with a smile, I propose that we vote in favour of the following supplement to paragraph 3 of the International Regulations:
‘Downhill and Slalom races may be organised.’
The proposal was adopted unanimously. This simple sentence radically changed the world of skiing”.
Xll. 14th to 16th May 1932 – Paris (FRA)
27 delegates from 16 countries
- Cross-Country Relay races are made official.
- Australia becomes a member of the FIS.
- A proposal relating to European Championships is rejected unanimously.
- Rules concerning Downhill and Slalom events are adopted.
XIII. 21st to 23rd February 1934 – Sollefteå (SWE)
18 delegates from 10 countries
- The President of the FIS, Ivar Holmquist, resigns and is elected Honorary President. New President: N. R. Östgaard (NOR).
- The calendar for ski events at the Olympic Games of 1936 at Garmisch-Partenkirchen is adopted with the inclusion of alpine skiing events for the first time.
XIV. 14th to 24th February 1936 – Garmisch-Partenkirchen (GER)
47 delegates from 24 countries
- Setting up of World Championships, the first of which was to take place the following year at Chamonix (FRA).
- Adoption of statutes for the new Downhill/Slalom Committee. A good number of other Committees were to be set up from then on.
XV. 21st to 23rd February 1938 – Helsinki (FIN)
36 delegates from 15 countries
Recognition of Skiflying – for which competition rules were not to be adopted until after the War.
1940 – 1949
XVI. 27th to 31st August 1946 – Pau (FRA)
37 delegates from 18 countries
- Cancellation of competitions known as the World Championships organised in 1941 at Cortina d’Ampezzo (ITA) with a limited number of participants.
- Setting up of three new Technical Committees: Cross-Country (with Sigge Bergman (SWE) as Chairman Jumping (Chairman: Sigmund Ruud (NOR) and Ladies’ (Chairman: Elsa Roth (SUI).
XVII. 10th to 15th May 1949 – Oslo (NOR)
44 delegates from 27 countries
Marc Hodler (SUI) becomes Chairman of the Downhill/Slalom Committee which up until then had been headed by Arnold Lunn (GBR).
1950 – 1959
XVIII. 24th to 27th April 1951 – Venice (ITA)
39 delegates from 16 countries
- Mr. Marc Hodler (SUI) becomes President of the FIS.
- Women’s Nordic skiing event included in the Winter Games (1952).
- Monitoring of the development of Skiflying.
XIX. 27th to 30th May 1953 – Igls (AUT)
60 delegates from 19 countries
- New rules for the World Championships.
- Introduction of annual conferences to set the calendar for international competitions.
- The number of FIS Committees must not exceed 10.
- The Women’s 3 x 5 km relay is introduced in the programme of international competitions.
- The Alpine Combined is reintegrated on to the programme.
XX. 30th May to 4th June 1955 – Montreux (SUI)
66 delegates from 21 countries
New rules are adopted for the entrance exams and recognition of FIS Ski Jumping Judges.
XXI. 30th May to 14th June 1957 – Dubrovnik (JUG)
57 delegates from 20 countries
- A Commission is appointed to study the advantages and disadvantages of Cross-Country races at high altitude (1000 m and above).
- The FIS Bulletin appears.
- The IOC will henceforth agree to listen to a report from the International Federations on their inspection of the sites before naming the Organising City for the Games.
XXII. 10th to 13th June 1959 – Stockholm (SWE)
75 delegates from 24 countries
- Stricter safety rules for the Downhill.
- Electric timekeeping is adopted for Cross-Country events.
- The Women’s 5 km is included in the programme for the 1962 World Championships.
- A new form of classification for the Nordic Combined.
1960 – 1969
XXIII. 28th May to 3rd June 1961 – Madrid (SPA)
96 delegates from 26 countries
- New types of classifications for Nordic and Alpine Combined events are adopted.
- It is decided that the World Championships in Ski Jumping will be organised on two ski-jumps (70 m and 90 m) from 1962 onwards.
- It is agreed that non-amateurs must be excluded from the Olympic Games. “An Olympic competitor shall have a civilian profession.”
- Collaboration with the sectors of sports medicine and physiology is strengthened at international level.
- A fee of CHF 150.– will henceforth be payable for each event entered on the international calendar.
- At the Secretariat General Arnold Kaech (SUI) succeeds Sigge Bergmann (SWE).
XXIV. 20th to 24th May 1963 – Athens (GRE)
66 delegates from 31 countries
- For the first time the World Ski Championships are entrusted to a town in the southern hemisphere, Portillo du Chili.
- In the FIS budget for 1963-–1965, spending was at CHF 155 400.–.
XXV. 8th to 11th June 1965 – Mamaia (RUM)
76 delegates from 30 countries
- The 1924 Olympic events are officially made the 1st Skiing World Championships. The winners of competitions patronized annually by the FIS and the Olympic winners now have the right to the title of “World Champion”.
- Introduction of special speed competitions in alpine skiing, kilometre stride, etc.
XXVI. 16th to 21st May 1967 – Beirut (LIB)
74 delegates from 31 countries
- Recognition of the World Alpine Ski Cup which is to be monitored by the FIS from 1968 onwards.
- Distribution of advice and rules for circulation on skis.
- Appearance of femininity controls.
- Authorisation of Continental Championships in Cross-Country and Jumping for Juniors.
- Television rights at the World Championships become the exclusive property of the FIS which will negotiate directly with the television companies.
- The Congress Members declare that the sport of skiing, under the jurisdiction of the FIS, includes all manners of skiing engendered by muscular force and gravity, on the ground and on any kind of artificial or natural surface.
XXVII. 22nd to 25th May 1968 – Barcelona (SPA)
85 delegates from 33 countries
- Total revision of the statutes.
- The National Associations take charge of monitoring relationships between athletes and the manufacturers of sports items.
- Distribution of safety rules in winter sports centres.
1970 – 1979
XXVIII. 26th to 29th May 1971 – Opatija (JUG)
85 delegates from 34 countries
- Re-shaping of competition rules.
- Setting up of World Skiflying Championships.
- FIS Budget for 1971–1973 = CHF 780 000.–.
- Women's 4 x 5 km relay replaces the traditional 3 x 5 km.
- Setting up of Junior European Alpine Ski Championships.
XXIX. 7th and 8th June 1973 – Nicosie (CYP)
83 delegates from 35 countries
The principal of modernising the rules governing amateur status is adopted.
XXX. 25th to 31st May 1975 – San Francisco (USA)
82 delegates from 33 countries
- Recognition of Women's 20 km Cross-Country.
- Setting up of Junior World Nordic Skiing Championships.
- Adoption of new rules for qualification making provision for a category of racers who could not take part in the Olympic Games.
- Laminated ski-suits are banned.
- The formula for the parallel slalom is maintained, with revised rules.
- Mr. Gian Franco Kasper (SUI, aged 29) is appointed as the person in charge of FIS Administration.
Safety and skiing. The President of the FIS, Marc Hodler, declares: ”The approval of alpine ski runs should be reviewed regularly in view of the constant improvement in speeds which are becoming excessive and which make jumps uncontrollable. The present runs which are too straight should be modified, and made more technical in order to limit the speed.”
XXXI. 29th and 30th April 1977 – Bariloche (ARG)
79 delegates from 33 countries
- Provisional recognition of the Cross-Country Skiing World Cup organised unofficially for the 4th time in 1976–1977.
- An Equipment Committee is given the task of agreeing all new innovations in order to reinforce safety.
- On the 1976–1977 calendar, 868 alpine events and 422 nordic events appear.
- Adoption of a code of conduct for Cross-Country Skiers similar to that existing for Alpine Skiers.
- Responsibility and control of Freestyle Skiing is included amongst the activities of the FIS.
XXXII. 18th and 19th May 1979 – Nice (FRA)
104 delegates from 41 countries
- Setting up of a Jumping World Cup.
- Recognition of Acrobatic Skiing and Skiing on Grass.
- The wearing of a helmet becomes obligatory for Ski Jumpers.
- The Ski Jumps are approved in 17 countries.
- The Alpine Combined event in the World Championships becomes a separate event, governed by special rules. Downhill and Slalom make up the programme for this combined event. This formula replaces that which consisted of establishing the classification on the three events played during the Championships.
- The Junior World Nordic Ski Championships replace the European Championships.
- Greater stress is laid on skiing for all.
1980 – 1989
XXXIII. 11th to 16th May 1981 – Puerto de la Cruz (SPA)
101 delegates from 39 countries
- The World Coups in three groups of events are officially recognised: Alpine, Cross-Country and Jumping.
- Appearance of a new Giant Slalom, which is longer and faster, in a single round: the “Super-G”.
- The Women’s 20 km completes the Olympic programme in Cross-Country.
- Introduction of four new events which count for the World Championships: Team Ski Jumping competition and Team Nordic Combined, Freestyle Skiing for Seniors and Juniors.
XXXIV. 8th to 15th May 1983 – Sydney (AUS)
92 delegates from 44 countries
- From 1985 onwards, the Senior World Championships will take place every two years and not every four years. Thus there will be no medals awarded to World Ski Champions at Sarajevo in 1984.
- Appearance of three new events: European Freestyle Championships – Nordic Combined Team Event at the Junior World Ski Championships – Nordic Combined at World Cup.
- The most famous of all Cross-Country races, the 80 km “Vasa” is held for the 60th time in 1983.
XXXV. 27th May to 1st June 1985 – Vancouver (CAN)
91 delegates from 36 countries
- Introduction of special Cross-Country events in the free technique.
- Super-G is 4th alpine discipline as from WSC 1987.
- Athletes can only be entered to WSC who are citizens of the National Ski Association which enters them and have to prove it by a valid passport.
XXXVI. 6th to 11th June 1988 – Istanbul (TUR)
113 delegates from 46 countries
- The maximum value of the first prize in international ski competitions should be increased from CHF 1500 to CHF 3000.
- To increase the longest distance in ladies’ Cross-Country events at WSC and OWG from 20 km to 30 km.
1990 – 1999
XXXVII. 20th to 27th May 1990 – Montreux (SUI)
125 delegates from 48 countries
- Inauguration FIS House, Oberhofen.
- Establishment of the FIS Court.
- Implementation pursuit start in Cross-Country for the OWG 1992.
- The WSC in Skiflying is introduced.
- Blood samples in connection to antidoping tests are introduced.
XXXVIII. 7th to 12th June 1992 – Budapest (HUN)
137 delegates from 54 countries
- The sale of television rights should be a part of the FIS Marketing.
- Introduction of FIS points in Cross-Country Skiing.
- Free accommodation for participants at WSC in alpine and nordic events.
XXXIX. 6th to-12th June 1994 – Rio de Janeiro (BRA)
125 delegates from 55 countries
- The Team Competition in Nordic Combined will be 4 x5 km instead of 3 x 10 km.
- Introduction of a Continental Cup in Nordic Combined.
- Establishment of international rules for Roller Skiing.
- Homologation for Speed Skiing events.
- To introduce Snowboard as a FIS discipline.
XL. 10th to 16th May 1996 – Christchurch (NZE)
149 delegates from 62 countries
- The Grass Skiing World Cup is introduced.
- Acro is the new name for Freestyle Ballet events.
- Several technical changes in the ICR Ski Jumping.
- The Council itself will appoint new WSC organizers.
XLI. 17th to 24th May 1998 – Prag (CZE)
149 delegates from 63 countries
- Marc Hodler retires.
- Gian Franco Kasper is elected as the new President.
- Cross-Country sprint events will be organized at SWC 2001.
- Nordic Combined sprint events will be organized at SWC 1999.
- Rollerski WSC are introduced as from 2000.
- Number of nations associated to FIS reaches 100.
2000 – 2009
XLII. 28th May to 3rd June 2000 – Melbourne (AUS)
139 delegates from 62 countries
- Introduction of a limited number of starts in alpine FIS races for first year junior competitors.
- Change to the rules concerning Gender Testing.
- Team Competition on the normal hill at World Ski Championships in Lahti 2001.
- Re-printing of FIS calendar, FIS points and media guides on website only from season 2001/2002.
XLIII. 2nd to 8th June 2002 – Portoroz (SLO)
143 delegates from 67 countries
- A new procedure for the election of the FIS Council, whereby the Congress shall elect the 16 Council Members from which the 4 Vice-Presidents will be elected by the Council.
- The President shall be elected for 4 years.
- New Rules for Sanctions applicable to all Disciplines.
- Revision of Rules of Conduct to include provisions for Snowboarding and Carving.
- Regulation of the vertical drop for Super-G, children’s courses.
- Introduction of a new Knock-Out (K-O) format for Slalom and a new event, Alpine Discipline.
- Adoption of resolution to increase the transmission and promotion of skiing.
- Ski Jumping Team Event on the normal hill at the 2005 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Oberstdorf (GER) and Skiflying Team Event at the 2004 Championships in Planica (SLO).
- Freestyle Ski Cross and Freestyle Halfpipe at Freestyle World Championships as from 2005.
- Big Air at Snowboard World Championships as from 2003.
- Trinidad & Tobago and the Republic of Moldova elected as associate members of FIS.
XLIV. 30th May to 5th June 2004 – Miami (USA)
141 delegates from 58 countries
- Unanimous approval of the World Anti Doping Code.
- The Nations Team Event was introduced to the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships.
- A “U-23” (under 23) World Championship was added to the existing Cross-Country competitions and will be carried out together with the FIS Junior Nordic World Ski Championships (from 2006).
- Ladies Ski Jumping will be developed, beginning with a Continental Cup Serie as from 2004/2005 and an individual and a team competition at the Junior World Championships from 2006.
- A TV resolution and the strategy for its implementation was adopted by a very large majority.
- Hong Kong was affiliated as an Associated Member.
- A significant increase in financial support with a total of CHF 22.375 million direct support from FIS to the member National Ski Associations.
- Bernard Chevalier (FRA) FIS Council Member for 16 years, Torbjörn Yggeseth (NOR) Chairman FIS Ski Jumping Committee, Gerhard Hochmuth (GER) Member of Ski Jumping Committee and Expert for 40 years were appointed Honorary Members of FIS.
- New Council Members were elected: Michel Vion (FRA) former Alpine World Ski Champion and Sverre Seeberg (NOR) President Norwegian Ski Association.
XLV. 21st to 27th May 2006 – Vilamoura (POR)
153 delegates from 66 countries